International Relations and Diplomacy Schools
One government may favor free market policies. Another may champion protectionist laws. One business may lobby for lower taxes. Another may enter into a dispute with a foreign government over environmental regulations. One company may see its stock price rapidly decrease due to the findings of a government-sponsored study. Another may see its value increase after being awarded a lucrative government contract.
International relations and diplomacy and the way in which governments and companies interact with each other affect both national economies and the global economy on a daily basis. This includes the many political and public policy issues that directly or indirectly affect everyone in the world — from trade agreements to visa requirements to tariffs. Specializations in the field of international relations and diplomacy include peace studies, arms control, human trafficking, and other pressing issues of our time.
Those who work in the field of international relations and diplomacy must have a high level of analytical skills as well as (you may have guessed it) diplomacy skills. Foreign language skills are an additional asset.
Political Marketing - The Story Behind Political Campaigns
Political marketing is marketing that is designed to influence consumers about political issues, candidates running for office, or public issues or ideas. It's based heavily on market research and tends to be consistently on the cutting edge of new marketing techniques. While it's extremely cut-throat at times, it is also some of the most time-tested, refined, and effective marketing you'll ever find.
At the heart of political marketing is a strong belief in, and study of, market research. Political campaigns spend millions on focus groups, polling, and grassroots events aimed at studying their audience. Marketers look at what products they buy, their perceptions of a candidate or a policy, where they stand on key issues, and their emotional response to certain topics. There is wide debate over whether the market research shapes the outcome of political policy, or whether the pre-determined policy is simply 'spun' to appear congruent with the market research. Whichever way it happens, market research is used to craft a compelling marketing message for a campaign.
All political campaigns have similar components. They are:
A narrative story about the candidate or issue: People respond to stories, and to the human element behind facts and figures. For instance, a candidate with a compelling back story, or a political cause highlighted by a heart wrenching tale of loss or heroism creates an emotional response and a feeling of connection to the candidate or issue. Barack Obama, for instance, who was raised by a single parent, connected with many single moms who saw the aspirations for their children realized in him. John McCain was a maverick war hero who connected with veterans and military families.
A strong call to action: The success of political campaigns often comes down to the amount of resources they have at their disposal. Campaigns need money, volunteers, and the help of a devoted base to make their message go viral. In order for this to happen, they must have a strong call to action that motivates their people to get involved and get excited about the campaign. One of the things that political campaigns are extremely good at doing is consistently reaching out to their supporters for help. They know that what convinces one person to support the cause may not be as effective with someone else. This is why they hammer supporters with requests, and then refine their marketing strategy as they study their results.
Real time testing and tracking: Political marketers have a finite amount of time to get their message heard. Because of this, they keep close track on their market research, polling data, and the success of their marketing pieces. If needed, they make swift changes to anything they feel is not working; even the campaign's core message to the voters. For instance, Hillary Clinton's team changed her core message throughout the presidential campaign looking for one that would resonate with voters, and increase her standing in the polls.
Using new technology to transcend traditional media filters: The advances in the Internet world have had a staggering effect on political marketing. Today, politicians don't have to rely on traditional media to get their message out to voters. They can bypass the media filter and go straight to the people through blogs, podcasts, Twitter, and other forms of social media. This has revolutionized the way campaigns are run. In fact, it was Obama's well-oiled Internet campaign that initially garnered him so much recognition and created a sizeable war chest for his campaign.
Political marketing is marketing that strives to influence consumer choices on political candidates, issues, or ideas. It does so in a competitive and rapidly evolving environment, though it relies on many fundamental core marketing principles. Basically, political marketing is about getting your message heard, having your story resonate with voters, and communicating often enough to have them remember you, or your idea, on Election Day.